Wuchereria Bancrofti occurs in the wide geographic lane between the tropics. Several species of mosquitoes like: Aedes, culex, Anopheles transmit Wuchereria Bancrofti . Adult worms settle in the absorbent glands and vessels. Microfilariae appear in the blood during the night, only in the Oceania islands it does not have any clear day cycle. Around the mature worms in the absorbent glands, the vessels, the liver and the spleen a granulomatous tissue comes into being which causes, after a dozen or so years, irreversible adhesive and calcification lesions of the lymphatic system. They lead to vessel thickening (e.g. in the groin), bursting large absorbent vessels, hydrocele and elephantiasis of the limbs, reproductive organs or nipple.The invasion of Wuchereria Bancrofti is mostly asymptomatic, especially among people who were exposed to infection for a short time. In intense or repeatable infestations, the symptoms might appear after a year and might not characteristic:
More characteristic are further complications:
First of all it is different from Wuchereria bancrofti as it occurs in South Asia and Far East and it infects only 1 – 16 % of the total population. Moreover, it has a considerable reservior in monkeys, dogs and cats and is transmitted exculsively by gnats from the Mansonia family. Symptomatic infestations occur among children as a complex consisting of eosinophilia, enlargement of the peripheral and celiac absorbent glands and pneumonitis. This filariasis causes elephantiasis of the feet and shin. It occurs on Flores and Timor islands (Indonesia). Brugia timori infestations have a very rough clinical course.
It occurs in Central Africa and some of the countries of Central and South America. The parasite is transmitted by small insects, so called black-flies, developing in rivers with a strong current. Mature worms develop in the subcutaneous tissues, especially in the torso, the head and the legs creating tumors with a diameter of several centimeters. O. volvolus microfilariae appear in the whole skin of the body and in the eyeballs which results in conjunctiva, choroid, retina inflammation and cornea damage. The most serious complication after onchocercosis is blindness caused by corneal opacity, secondary glaucoma and eye lesions.
It occurs only in Central – West Africa and is transmitted by bitterns from the Chrysopos group. Adult forms penetrate subcutenous tissue or conjunctiva causing skin swelling or blushing and echema lesions. Calabar swelling, that is periodical painful lesions around dead parasites, usually around big joints, where parasites are under the biggest threat of external injuries. Glottis oedema and cephalitis are the most dangerous complications of loaosis. Microfilariae might appear occasionally in the blood but only during the day.
Pregnant women can transmit the disease to their babies while giving birth (it usually disappears after a month). Trophozoites of the size of 7×10 cm cause vagina epithelium cells damages, small losses and ulceration. The hatching period lasts 1 – 4 weeks. 50% of infected women suffer from ample foaming yellow vagina discharge and it is accompanied by vagina and vulva irritation. The symptoms intensify during menstruation. Medical examination can proove an iflammation of the vagina, an increased amount of mucus in the vagina or its damage.Trichomoniasis is often complicated by bacterial and fungal infection. Trichomoniasis treatment intensifies candidosis activity as a result of changes in vaginal biocenosis. Chronic trichomoniasis might influence pelvis minor inflammatory states, infertility, pregnancy complications, the length of convalescence period after hysterectomy. In case of men the trichomonas might embed in the urethra, prostate gland, testicles and penis ulceration.The invasions generally show no symptoms and it must be distinguished from infection and diploccocus gonorrhoea.
It is usually accompanied by bacterial and fungus infection (e.g. Candidia albicans). If it is chronic and not cured it can cause infertility and serious pregnancy complications.
Trichomonas vaginalis symptoms:
When an infection of the reproductive ducts is accompanied by a urethra ducts infection there is a possibility of itchiness, over-urination or painful urination and pain in the lower part of the stomach.
Acquired toxoplasmosis symptoms:
Chronic toxoplasmosis symptoms:
Inborn toxoplasmosis symptoms:
The parasite moves from the alimentary canal of a human into the absorbent glands, the muscles, the brain, the spinal cord and the eye balls. The course of the disease can be quite asymptomatic. However often the following symptoms may occur: enlarged absorbent glands, constipation, rarely – heart muscle inflammation or meningitis. The infection of women before they get pregnant does not carry any risk for the future foetus (however there are still some specialist who do not agree with this thesis). Fresh infection of a pregnant woman causes an inflammation of the placenta and this way the parasites may penetrate into the foetus. The risk of toxoplasmosis penetration through the placenta increases along with the pregnancy progress: 25% – in the first trimester, 50% – in the second one and 65% – in third one. Whereas in the inborn form of toxoplasmosis the risk is the highest in the first trimester and equals 75%, in the second one – 50% and the third one – 5%.
Inborn toxoplasmosis might cause foetal hypertrophy, thrombocytopenia, enlarged liver and spleen. Natural miscarriage or intrauterine death occur in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Symptomatic inborn toxoplasmosis occurs in 30% of infected infants, 10% of which suffer from its acute course.
Perinatal death rate caused by inborn toxoplasmosis is estimated at 8%. 70% of prenatally infected children do not show any symptoms and in most of them the disease is left undetected and not cured. In some children at later age certain consequences connected with the central nervous system, hearing handicap and vision disorders might appear.
Who is the most vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection ?
Toxoplasmosis infection risk increases with age. Research has shown that mothers who gave birth to a child with Down syndrome had the positive result of an analysis on toxoplasmosis in 80% of cases; women with pathologica obstetric anamnesis – 60%; the mentally ill – 40 – 50% and people with eye sickness – 50 – 60 %.
Trichinosis, caused by threadworms, occurs on all continents where people eat animal meat which may contain the threaworms. The animals which can cause the infection are: pigs, wild boars, bears, dogs, cats and rats. However it is the most dangerous to eat dishes made of raw or undone meat.
Sanitary negligence and lack of hygiene (feeding pigs with carcass, presence of rats) are the most common causes of trichinosis. The majority of infections among men are caused by eating raw meat containing nomatodes. Most of them show no symptoms. Even if the symptoms are visible it still does not mean the disease is serious or light.
A female form of Strongyloides stercoralis is a tiny 2mm-long nematode. It lives in the duodenum and leiunum mucosa membrane, rarely in the lung tissue. They lay eggs in tissues, from which rabdoidal larvas are hatched. Then they exit the body with faeces or they are coughed out. Sometimes rabdoidal larvas, still in the bowel or in the anus area, can develop into invasive filarial forms which might infect others. The infection might last for decades.
Larvas get into the body through the skin on the feet or buttocks, leaving blush skin changes itching and withering lasting a couple of hours or days. Short-term line lesions on the abdomen and anus come into being as a result of auto-invasion of a person who is already infected. During strongyloides stercoralis’ way through the lungs tissue, Loeffler’s infiltrations might appear. Less intense invasions result in small lesions in the mucosa membrane and the small bowel.
Strongyloides stercoralis symptoms:
Massive invasions cause lesions in the duodenum and leiunum.
The life cycle of Schistosomiasis is tightly connected with water environment, which is contaminated by human faeces and urine. Wild animals and pets are hosts for only S.japonicum. Schistosoma evolve in water and land snails. Cercarias released to water by snails infect humans by penetrating the skin and getting into the blood vessels. In order to prevent infection you should not bathe in contaminated water reservoirs or drink watar of unknown origin.
Mature forms of S. haematobium evolve in the blood vessels of the pelvis minor especially in the bladder whereas S. mansoni i S. japonicum in the mesenteric veins. Part of eggs laid by the female living several years penetrate the tissues into the bladder or large bowel and are passed through with faeces or urine. Another part of eggs stay in the tissues causing chronic pathological lesions.
The local consequences of S. heamatbium infestation are: blood and inflammatory lesions, later hypertrophic and papillary lesions of bladder walls and the pelvis minor organs. As a result of the lesions, extensive calcifications and cicatrization of the bladder. That leads to bacterial infection of the urinary tract, clots, uremia and anaemia. The main symptoms in the urinary system schistosomiasis are painful urination and hematuria (especially in the final part of the urine)
S. mansoni i S. japonicum infestations cause bleeding lesions and ulceration then polypoid and scars of the small and large bowel mucosa.
The infection frequency has not been confirmed and it is estimated at more than 10%, and it affects mostly children.
How do people get infected?
An infection starts in the oral cavity and gets there with water and food that are poisoned by sporocyst.
Sarcocystis hominis infection symptoms:
Sarcocystis hominis affects people causing muscle or alimentary system sarcocyst.
The acute stadium is characterized by:
The chronic stadium of sarcocyst, when flukes might be embeded in the muscle tissue of different parts of the body is chraceterized by:
Sarcocystis hominis development cycle
There are 3 stadiums of agamogony (taking place in muscles) and other stadiums of agamogony taking place in the bowel. Sarcocystis hominis development cycles are: sporocyst, sporozoite, schizont, merozoite, micro and macrogametes, zygote, oocyst and others. When a sporocyst enters a human organism it gets transformed into a sporozoit, which then is converted into a schizont in the bowel epithelium cells. Schizonts divide several times and become merozoites, which convert into macrogametes or together with blood macrophages get into the muscle tissue (e.g. bowel), creating sarcocysts fulfiled with bradyzoites,. Microgametocytes, during the reproduction process produce micrgamets and macrogametocytes produce macrogamets. Gametes colligate creating a zygote surrounded by a capsule and as a result an oocyst is created. Subsequently, the cyst is excreted with faeces, and becomes a subject of further division creating invasive sporocyst.