Flukes (Clonorchis sinensis)

Flukes (Clonorchis sinensis). Flukes (Clonorchis sinensis) – a species of parasitizing flukes. Flukes Clonorchis (Opistorchis) sinesis and related species (o.felineus, o. viverrini) occur frequently in the Far East (Thailand, Korea). Their hosts are humans and carnivorous animals (dogs and cats) and  infections take place while eating raw meat containing encysted Metacercaria. The infestation of flukes clonorchis sinensis causes the disease known as clonorchiasis which in the worst case leads to bile duct cancer. Opisthorchiasis is a similar disease caused by o. viverrini and o. felineus.

Symptoms and course

Parasites irritate the bile duct walls causing their epithelium to grow, which can suffer metaplasia. In case of intense infestation it can cause an inflammation of the bile duct, liver fibrosis and finally cholangiocarcinoma.


Mature larvas are detected through a microscopic examination for the presence of  parasite eggs or an examination of the duodenum content. Another method is a serological examination of the blood.

Life cycle

Metacercariae released in the digestive system of a human or an animal penetrate into the bile ducts where they grow mature and reproduce.

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